Aktor Politik dan Gagalnya Transisi Demokrasi Mesir Tahun 2011-2013

Amri Mushlih, Hurriyah Hurriyah

Abstract


Studi ini membahas bagaimana peran aktor-aktor politik Mesir pada masa transisi yang menyebabkan kegagalan transisi demokrasi. Aktor-aktor tersebut diantaranya: 1) militer (SCAF (Supreme Council of Armed Forces)) yang mengambil alih kekuasaan sementara pada masa transisi; 2) kelompok Islam yang didalamnya termasuk Ikhwanul Muslimin dan kelompok Salafi; 3) elite rezim lama (status quo) yang merupakan elite sisa rezim Mubarak baik yang masih berada dalam struktur politik maupun yang telah tersingkir; dan 4) kelompok sekuler yang merupakan para elite dan aktivis masyarakat sipil yang muncul sejak revolusi anti-Mubarak. Interaksi aktor-aktor ini dianalisis dengan kerangka konsep transisi demokrasi dan teori elite dalam transisi yang dikemukakan oleh Higley dan Burton. Dari analisis tersebut, studi ini menemukan bahwa terjadi kegagalan elite settlement antara aktor-aktor politik Mesir akibat perbedaan ideologi dan gagalnya pengelolaan koalisi antara kelompok Islam dan kelompok sekuler. Selain itu, studi ini juga menemukan bahwa tidak terjadinya elite convergence karena para aktor memiliki komitmen yang rendah terhadap demokrasi sebagai satu-satunya aturan main. Kedua hal tersebut menyebabkan instabilitas politik yang berujung pada kudeta militer yang menandai gagalnya transisi demokrasi Mesir.


Keywords


Mesir; Timur Tengah; Arab Spring; Transisi Demokrasi; Aktor Politik dan Elite Politik

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v2i1.81

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