Kekalahan Cambodia People’s Party di Wilayah Urban Kamboja pada Pemilu Tahun 2013

Farizan Fajari

Abstract


Kamboja merupakan salah satu negara yang menerapkan sistem pemilu otoriter. Kondisi tersebut dimanfaatkan oleh partai penguasa, Cambodia People’s Party (CPP), sebagai sarana untuk mendominasi kursi parlemen Kamboja hingga pemilu tahun 2008. Namun, peta kekuatan partai politik di Kamboja mengalami perubahan pada pemilu tahun 2013. Pada pemilu tersebut, perolehan kursi CPP mengalami penurunan signifikan dan menjadi hasil terburuk bagi mereka sejak pemilu tahun 1998. Penurunan tersebut utamanya dilatarbelakangi oleh kegagalan CPP dalam mendapatkan kursi terbanyak di empat wilayah urban Kamboja: Kampong Cham, Phnom Penh, Prey Veng, dan Kandal, yang memiliki proporsi jumlah kursi terbanyak. Padahal, CPP sebelumnya tidak pernah mengalami kekalahan di keempat wilayah tersebut secara bersamaan. Artikel ini berargumen bahwa kekalahan CPP dalam rezim otoriter disebabkan oleh kondisi-kondisi penting yang terjadi di Kamboja. Dengan mengelaborasi teori Dominant Party Authoritarian Regimes dan konsep pengawas pemilu internasional, artikel ini melihat tiga kondisi penting yang terjadi di Kamboja yang menjadi penyebab menurunnya suara CPP di perkotaan, yaitu: kebijakan pemerintahan Hun Sen yang menyebabkan permasalahan dalam masyarakat, menguatnya partai oposisi dan keberhasilan isu dan strategi kampanye yang digunakan, dan peran pengawas pemilu internasional dalam menurunkan praktik intimidasi politik oleh militer. Dalam mengumpulkan data, artikel ini menggunakan metode kualitatif, dengan cara mengumpulkan data primer melalui wawancara mendalam dan analisis data sekunder dari kajian literatur.


Keywords


Rezim otoriter di Kamboja; pemilu tahun 2013; wilayah urban; partai penguasa; partai oposisi

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v2i2.74

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