Kekuasaan Presiden, Institusi Informal, dan Pengesahan RUU tentang Badan Pengelola Jaminan Sosial (BPJS)

Haryo Ksatrio Utomo

Abstract


Artikel ini mengeksaminasi praktik kekuasaan Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) dalam pembahasan Rancangan Undang-undang Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial (RUU BPJS) ketika presiden mengintervensi proses pembahasan RUU tersebut di parlemen. Di tengah proses pembahasannya, Presiden mengintervensi DPR melalui forum gabungan partai politik pendukung pemerintah di DPR atau dikenal dengan Sekretariat Gabungan (Setgab) dengan meminta partai pendukung pemerintah yang tidak memiliki posisi resmi dalam ketatanegaraan Indonesia untuk mendukung usulan pemerintah tersebut. Tulisan ini beranggapan bahwa intervensi presiden tersebut merupakan bentuk pembatasan kekuasaan DPR yang seharusnya bekerja secara independen. Adanya intervensi tersebut memunculkan pertanyaan tentang hubungan antara eksekutif dan legislatif yang sejak reformasi politik tahun 1998 cenderung membangun pembatasan kekuasaan presiden dengan memperkuat lembaga parlemen. Artikel ini mengajukan argumentasi bahwa Presiden SBY memiliki kesengajaan dalam menggunakan dan memaksimalkan institusi informal dari kekuasaan presiden yang tidak dapat disentuh oleh parlemen. Untuk menjelaskan dasar dari penggunaan pendekatan informal tersebut, artikel ini menggunakan pendekatan historik institusi informal dan antropologi politik. Pendekatan institusi informal menjelaskan mengenai institusi informal dari presiden di Indonesia antara masa prareformasi dan pascareformasi. Kemudian, pendekatan antropologi politik akan membahas pengaruh budaya politik Jawa yang dominan di Indonesia. Kedua pendekatan tersebut menunjukkan adanya faktor budaya politik Jawa yang menjadi landasan dari penggunaan sisi informal dari institusi presiden yang terbentuk sejak lama dengan kekuasaan presiden dan diteruskan oleh SBY yang juga dipengaruhi oleh cara berpikir yang dibangun di atas nilai-nilai budaya Jawa. Artikel membuktikan adanya pengaruh budaya Jawa tersebut dalam bentuk penggunaan institusi informal dalam proses perumusan RUU BPJS oleh presiden. 


Keywords


Kekuasaan Presiden; Budaya Politik Jawa; Institusi Informal; RUU BPJS

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v3i1.55

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