Electoral System and Party Survival: The Case of Indonesian Democracy 1999-2019

Muhammad Faishal Aminuddin, Muhammad Fajar Shodiq Ramadhan

Abstract


Studies on party survival strongly emphasize the internal dynamics of political parties and their ability to adapt to retain voter support. This article contends that changes in electoral systems and laws, classified as an external factors, also have a significant impact. As a result of these changes, new political parties cannot register to run for office. These changes have also made small political parties with little support unable to survive in parliament. Two significant findings emerge from this case study of Indonesia's five election cycles. First, changes in Indonesia's electoral systems and laws have been heavily influenced by the desire of major political parties to strengthen their positions in the political arena. They raised the parliamentary threshold using their legislative authority to make it more difficult for minor political parties to send representatives to parliament. Second, critical variables in electoral systems and laws such as district magnitude, seat conversion formula, and parliamentary threshold do not independently impact party survival. As a result, at least two variables must be combined, namely district magnitude and parliamentary threshold.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aminuddin, M. F, and Ramadlan, M. F. S. (2015). “Match-All party: Pragmatisme Politik dan Munculnya Spesies Baru Partai Politik di Indonesia Pasca Pemilu 2009.” Jurnal Politik 1 (February): 39–74. https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v1i1.9

Aminuddin, M. F. 2017. “The Purnawirawan and party development in post-authoritarian Indonesia, 1998–2014.” Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 36 (August): 3–30. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F186810341703600201

Benoit, Kenneth. 2004. “Models of Electoral System Change ."Electoral Studies 23 (April): 363–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3794(03)00020-9

Bianco, William, Christopher Kam, Itai Sened, and Regina Smyth. 2014. “Party Relevance and Party Survival in New Democracies.” International Area Studies Review 17 (September): 251–61. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2233865914546500

Bielasiak, Jack. 2005. “Party Competition in Emerging Democracies: Representation and Effectiveness in Post-Communism and Beyond.” Democratization 12 (December): 331–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510340500126764

Bowler, Shaun, Elisabeth Carter, and David M. Farrell. 2001. “Studying Electoral Institutions and their Consequences: Electoral Systems and Electoral Laws.” CSD Working paper, UC Irvine: Center for the Study of Democracy. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7dc5b9dg

Capoccia, G. 2002. “The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws: The German System at Fifty.” West European Politics 25 (January): 171–202. https://doi.org/10.1080/713601619

Choi, Jungung. 2010. “District Magnitude, Social Diversity, and Indonesia's Parliamentary Party System from 1999 to 2009.” Asian Survey 50 (July/August): 663–83. https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2010.50.4.663

Croissant, Aurel, and Philip Völkel. 2012. “Party System Types and Party System Institutionalization: Comparing New Democracies in East and Southeast Asia.” Party Politics 18 (December): 235–65. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1354068810380096

Fossati, Diego. 2019. “The Resurgence of Ideology in Indonesia: Political Islam, Aliran and Political Behaviour.” Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 38 (August): 119–48. https://doi.org/10.1177/1868103419868400

Gallagher, Michael. 1986. “The Political Consequences of the Electoral System in the Republic of Ireland.” Electoral Studies 5 (December): 253–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-3794(86)90014-4

Harmel, Robert, and John D. Robertson. 1985. “Formation and Success of New Parties: A Cross-National Analysis.” International Political Science Review 6 (4): 501–23. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1601057

Hicken, Allen, and Erik M. Kuhonta. 2011. “Shadows from the Past: Party System Institutionalization in Asia.” Comparative Political Studies 44 (February), 572–97. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0010414010396460

Ishiyama, John. 1999. “Sickles into Roses: The Successor Parties and Democratic Consolidation in Post‐Communist Politics.” Democratization 6 (September): 52–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510349908403632

Ishiyama, J, and A Bozóki. 2001. “Adaptation and Change: Characterizing the Survival Strategies of the Communist Successor Parties.” The Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 17 (September), 32–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/714003582

Kitschelt, Herbert. 1988. “Organization and Strategy of Belgian and West German Ecology Parties: A New Dynamic of Party Politics in Western Europe?.” Comparative Politics 20 (January): 127–54. https://doi.org/10.2307/421663

Kitschelt, Herbert. 1989. “The Internal Politics of Parties: The Law of Curvilinear Disparity Revisited.” Political Studies 37 (September), 400–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1989.tb00279.x

Lawson, K. & Peter H. Merkl, eds. 1988. When Parties Fail: Emerging Alternative Organizations. Princeton University Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztg1n

Levitsky, Steven. 2003. “From Labor Politics to Machine Politics: The Transformation of Party-Union Linkages in Argentine Peronism, 1983-1999. Latin American Research Review 38: 3–36. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1555448

Lijphart, Arend. 1990. “The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, 1945-85.” The American Political Science Review 83 (June): 481–96. https://doi.org/10.2307/1963530

Lindberg, Staffan I. 2005. “Consequences of Electoral Systems in Africa: A Preliminary Inquiry.” Electoral Studies 24 (March), 41–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2004.02.006

Mainwaring, Scott. 1993. “Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy: The Difficult Combination.” Comparative Political Studies 26 (July): 198–228. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0010414093026002003

Mair, Peter. 1993. “Myths of Electoral Change and the Survival of Traditional Parties: The 1992 Stein Rokkan Lecture.” European Journal of Political Research 24 (August): 121–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1993.tb00372.x

Moser, Robert G, and Ethan Scheiner. 2012. Electoral Systems and Political Context: How the Effects of Rules Vary Across New and Established Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139178945

Milazzo, Caitlin, Robert G. Moser, and Ethan Scheiner. 2011. “Social Diversity Affects the Number of Parties Even Under First Past the Post Rules.” Comparative Political Studies 51 (June)938–74. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0010414017720704

Mujani, Saiful, and R. William Liddle. 2010a. “Indonesia: Personalities, Parties, and Voters.” Journal of Democracy 21 (April): 35–49.

Mujani, Saiful, and R. William Liddle. 2010b. “Voters and the New Indonesian Democracy.” Problems of Democratisation in Indonesia: 75-99. https://doi.org/10.1355/9789814279918-009

Pedersen, Mogens N. 1979. “The Dynamics of European Party Systems: Changing Patterns of Electoral Volatility.” European Journal of Political Research 7 (March): 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1979.tb01267.x

Poguntke, Thomas. 1987. “New Politics and party systems: The emergence of a new type of party?." West European Politics 10 (December): 76–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402388708424615

Spoon, Jae-Jae. 2011. Political Survival of Small Parties in Europe. University of Michigan Press.

Tan, Paige J. 2006. “Indonesia Seven Years after Soeharto: Party System Institutionalization in a New Democracy.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 28 (April): 88–114. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25798769

Tanuwidjaja, Sunny. 2010. “Political Islam and Islamic Parties in Indonesia: Critically Assessing the Evidence of Islam's Political Decline.” Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 32 (April): 29–49. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41288802

Tomsa, Dirk. 2010. “The Indonesian Party System after the 2009 Elections: Towards Stability?.” In Problems of Democratisation in Indonesia: Elections, Institutions and Society Edward Aspinall, and Marcus Mietzner. Singapore: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute, 141-159.

Tomsa, Dirk. 2012. “Still the Natural Government Party? Challenges and Opportunities for Golkar ahead of the 2014 Election.” South East Asia Research 20 (October): 491–509. https://doi.org/10.5367/sear.2012.0122

Tomsa, Dirk. 2014. “Party System Fragmentation in Indonesia: The Subnational Dimension.” Journal of East Asian Studies 14 (May-August): 249–78. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26335244

Ufen, Andreas. 2008. “Political Party and Party System Institutionalization in Southeast Asia: Lessons for Democratic Consolidation in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand.” Pacific Review 21(July): 327–350. https://doi.org/10.1080/09512740802134174

Wanandi, Jusuf. 2004. “The Indonesian General Elections 2004.” Asia-Pacific Review 11 (October): 115– 31. https://doi.org/10.1080/1343900042000292588

Yanai, Nathan. 1999. “Why do Political Parties Survive? An Analytical Discussion.” Party Politics 5 (January): 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1354068899005001001

Zur, R. 2019. “Stuck in the Middle: Ideology, Valence and the Electoral Failures of Centrist Parties.” British Journal of Political Science 51 (September):1-18. doi:10.1017/S0007123419000231




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v8i1.471

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 M Faishal Aminuddin