Adaptasi Sirkulasi Patron dalam Implementasi Sentralisme Demokratik Partai Komunis Vietnam dalam Kongres pada era “Doi Moi”

Hilwan Givari

Abstract


Kebertahanan negara satu partai pimpinan Partai Komunis Vietnam (PKV) pada era Doi Moi (Đổi Mới atau reformasi ekonomi) biasanya dijelaskan oleh para ilmuwan politik secara struktural dan kultural melalui teori ‘performance-based legitimacy’ atau pemikiran nasionalisme dari Ho Chi Minh. Kedua penjelasan itu menilai bahwa PKV memiliki ciri-ciri akuntabilitas politik yang sama dengan partai komunis lain yang berkuasa di dunia dengan sifatnya yang singular dan top-down birokratis, namun belum menyentuh fitur institusional negara-partai komunis seperti prinsip sentralisme demokratik. Dengan menerapkan sejumlah teori/konsep alternatif dan hasil penelitian kontemporer seputar institusionalisasi PKV dan pelaksanaan Kongres partai yang dilakukan pada era Doi Moi, tulisan ini melihat bahwa PKV mampu melaksanakan nilai- nilai akuntabilitas vertikal dan horizontal prinsip sentralisme demokratik secara lebih konsekuen dalam Kongres partai sebagai lembaga tertinggi partainya. Hal itu diraih melalui beberapa strategi seperti (1) keberadaan troika yang terdifusi, (2) penguatan Komite Sentral (Central Committee atau CC) di atas Politbiro, (3) peningkatan kompetisi dalam pemilihan anggota CC, serta (4) rivalitas blok voting dalam CC. Tulisan ini juga membuktikan secara kualitatif berdasarkan studi literatur yang digunakan keberadaan variabel konseptual ‘adaptasi sirkulasi patron’ sebagai penggerak dilaksanakannya prinsip akuntabilitas tersebut. Temuan tersebut membuktikan bahwa kebertahanan PKV tidak bisa disamakan dengan partai komunis di negara lain karena PKV terlihat mampu secara adaptif mengakomodasi tuntutan reformasi dan kepentingan para elite patron yang semakin pragmatis.


Keywords


sentralisme demokratik, institusionalisasi Partai Komunis, kebertahanan sistem politik satu partai, Vietnam.

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v4i1.192

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