Strategi Politik Elektoral Gerakan Buruh Di Korea Selatan (2004-2014)

Dana Pratiwi

Abstract


Penelitian ini menganalisis penyebab strategi politik elektoral gerakan buruh di Korea Selatan pasca tahun 2004 cenderung tidak efektif. Hal ini dapat dilihat dengan menurunnya jumlah perolehan kursi oleh partai buruh di parlemen nasional, terjadi faksi-faksi dalam internal partai, renggangnya hubungan antara organisasi gerakan buruh dengan partai, partai tidak mampu memperluas basis dukungan dan juga belum mampu mengakomodir isu-isu kebijakan nasional lainnya. Dalam menjawab pertanyaan penelitian tersebut, penulis menggunakan metode kualitatif dan mengacu pada sumber data-data sekunder. Analisis penelitian ini merujuk pada studi yang dilakukan oleh Collins. Menurutnya, terdapat dua aspek yang menentukan sebuah gerakan agar dapat membentuk partai politik yang berhasil dalam politik elektoral. Kedua aspek tersebut yaitu kesempatan politik dan mobilisasi sumber daya yang dilakukan oleh gerakan. Penulis berpendapat bahwa penyebab tidak efektifnya strategi elektoral gerakan buruh di Korea Selatan pasca tahun 2004 adalah adanya hambatan dalam kesempatan politik yang belum menguntungkan bagi gerakan buruh dan dalam mobilisasi sumber daya.


Keywords


strategi politik elektoral; kesempatan politik; mobilisasi sumber daya; gerakan buruh; Korea Selatan

Full Text:

PDF

References


Azmy, Ana Sabhana. 2011. “Negara dan Buruh Migran Perempuan: Partisipasi Politik Buruh Migran Perempuan di Indonesia dan Kelompok Buruh Migran dalam Kebijakan Perlindungan Buruh.” Jurnal Studi Politik 1 (No.2): 129-143.

Bailey, Daniel. 2010. “Politics on the Peninsula: Democratic Consolidation and the Political Party System in South Korea.” Graduate Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies 7 (No.1): 32-48.

Budiman, Arief. 1987. Jalan Demokratis Ke Sosialisme: Pengalaman Chili Di bawah Allende. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.

Choi, Inyi. 2005. “Organizing Negotiation and Resistance: The Role of Korean Union Federations As Institutional Mediators.” Disertasi, The University of California.

Collins, Jennifer Noelle. 2006. “Democratizing Formal Politics: Indigenous and Social Movement Political Parties in Ecuador and Bolivia, 1978-2000.” Disertasi. University of California, UC San Diego Electronic Dissertations.

Creswell, John W. 2010. Research Design: Pendekatan Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Mixed. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Diani, Mario. 1997. “Social Movement and Social Capital: A Network Perspective on Movement Outcomes.” Mobilization: An International Journal 2 (No.2): 129-147.

Ebenstein, William. 2006. Isme-Isme yang Mengguncang Dunia. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Narasi.

Giddens, Anthony. 2000. The Third Way: Jalan Ketiga Pembaruan Demokrasi Sosial. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Hellman, Ollie. 2011. Political Parties and Electoral Strategy: The Development of Party Organization in East Asia. UK: Plagrave Macmillan Publishers.

Ho, Dan Byung. 2004. “The Democratic Labor Party and the Korean Progressive Movement.” 7 September. Pidato dalam The 5th ASEM People’s Forum held in Hanoi. https://www.europe-solidaire.org/spip.php?article189 (18 Agustus 2017).

Jee, Joohee. 2007. “Class Structure and Class Consciousness in South Korea.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 27 (No.2): 135-155.

Junghee Ryu (Wakil Juru Bicara Labor Party), wawancara e-mail pada 12 Juni 2017.

Kang, David. 2002. Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines. Cambridge University Press.

Koo, Hagen.1993. State and Society in Contemporary Korea. USA: Cornell University Press.

Korean National Election Commision. 2013. “Statistics of the Elected (National Assembly).” 26 April. http://www.nec.go.kr/engvote_2013/05_resourcecenter/07_02.jsp?num=300&pg=2&col=&sw= (6 Agustus 2017).

Kraft, Diana. 2006. “South Korea's National Security Law: A Tool of Oppression in an Insecure World.” Wisconsin International Law Journal 24 (2): 627-659.

Lee, Su Hoon. 1993. “Transitional Politics of Korea, 1987-1992: Activation of Civil Society.” Pacific Affairs 66 (3): 351-367.

Lee, Yeonho dan Yoo-Jin Lim. 2006. “The Rise of the Labor Party in South Korea: Causes and Limits.” The Pacific Review 19 (3): 305-335.

Kim, Yunjong. 2012. “The Failure of Socialism in South Korea: 1945-2007.” Tesis, University of Sheffield.

Kleden, Paskal. 2004. “New Labour dan Neue Mitte: Perubahan Dalam Kebijakan Demokrasi Sosial. Analisa Terhadap Labour Party di Inggris dan Sozialdemokratische Partei Deuschlands di Jerman”. Skripsi. Depok: Universitas Indonesia.

Kumar, Ranjit. 2011. Research Methodology: a Step by Step Guide for Beginners, 3rd Edition. London: Sage Publication.

Labourcounts.com. 2002. “Clause IV: The Original and Current Version.” http://www.labourcounts.com/oldclausefour.htm (4 September 2017).

Lee, Hyun. 2015. “South Korean Labor Strikes Back.” Artikel Foreign Policy in Focus. 12 November. http://fpif.org/south-korean-labor-strikes-back/ (3 September 2017).

Lee, Yeonho, Chung, Sukkyu dan Jang, Haehyun. 2008. “Labor and Politics in East Asia: The Case of Failure of the Encompassing Labor Organization in Korea.” Asian Perspective Journal 32 (3): 111-138.

Ministry of Employee and Labor. 2015. “Unionization Rate Stands at 10.3 % in 2014, Same as Previous, moel.go.kr.” 17 November. http://www.moel.go.kr/english/poli/poliNewsnews_view.jsp?idx=1174 (6 Agustus 2017).

Maydom, Barry, Malu Gatto dan Daniel Fedorowycz. 2014. “Institutional Legacies of Authoritarian Regimes: State-sponsored Trade Unions after Democratic Transitions”. Artikel WPSA, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford. 1-19.

McGrath, Ben. 2012. “South Korean “Progressives” line-up behind the Democrats”. The International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). 15 Desember. https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2012/12/15/kore-d15.html (27 Agustus 2017).

National Election Commision. 2017. “Election Results of Korean National Assembly, nec.go.kr, 2013.” 17 Mei. http://www.nec.go.kr/engvote_2013/05_resourcecenter/07_02.jsp?num=492&pg=1&col=&sw (6 Agustus 2017).

National Elections Commissions. 2017. “Statistics of the elected (Local Elections-City/Province Councilors), nec.go.kr, 2013.” 17 Mei. http://www.nec.go.kr/engvote_2013/05_resourcecenter/07_02.jsp?num=294&pg=3&col=&sw= (6 Agustus 2017).

Nugrahen, Natalia Imas Kristi. 2015. “Pelemahan Organisasi Buruh di Korea Selatan Pasca Krisis Ekonomi 1997-1998.” Skripsi. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Oh, Jennifer S. 2012. “Strong State and Strong Civil Society in Contemporary South Korea Challenges to Democratic Governance.” Asian Survey 52 (3): 528-549.

Pickard, Jim dan Sarah O’Connor. 2017. “Rise of Jeremy Corbyn Put UK Trade Unions Back in Limelight.” https://www.ft.com/content/01cfa9c8-93e0-11e7-a9e6-11d2f0ebb7f0 (18 Januari 2018).

Pirie, Iain. 2008. The Korean Developmental State: From Dirigisme to Neo-Liberalism. London: Routledge.

Shin, Kwang-Yeong. 2012. “The Dilemmas of Korea's New Democracy in An Age of Neoliberal Globalisation.” Third World Quarterly 33 (2): 293-309.

Subono, Nur Iman. 2007. “Demokrasi dan Buruh: Kajian Teoritis dan Komparatif.” Politea: Jurnal Ilmu Politik 1 (No.1): 93-114.

Sung, Jeong Jae. 2008. “The Debate to End the DLP‟s Pro-North Korea Stance: the Roots of a 20-Year Conflict”. DailyNK.” 1 Februari. http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?num=3212&cataId=nk00400 (16 Februari 2017).

Tae, Jung Young. 2000. “Labor Movement and Democracy in The Age of Global Neoliberalism: The Case of Korea.” Korea Journal Summer (-): 243-273.

Theguardian.com. 2015. “Clause IV: Brief History.” https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/aug/09/clause-iv-of-labour-party-constitution-what-is-all-the-fuss-about-reinstating-it (18 Januari 2018).

Valori, Giancarlo Elia. 2016. “Legislative Elections in South Korea Modern Diplomacy.” 21 April. http://moderndiplomacy.eu/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=1363:legislative-elections-in-south-korea&Itemid=645 (16 Februari 2017).

Wilson. 2004. “Gerakan Buruh dan Politik Progresif di Korea: Taxes to The Rich, Welfare for The Poor.” Jurnal Sedane 2 (2): 36-50.

Winanti, Poppy S. 2003. “Developmental State dan Tantangan Globalisasi: Pengalaman Korea Selatan.” Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik 7 (2): 175-204.

Yoon, Yang Seung dan Mas’oed, Mohtar. 2003. Masyarakat Politik dan Pemerintahan Korea: Sebuah Pengantar. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Valenzuela, J. Samuel. 1988. “Labor Movements in Transitions to Democracy: A Framework for Analysis.” Working Paper 104, Kellogg Institute, University of Notre Dame. (1988): 1-38.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v3i2.124

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Dana Pratiwi