Religious Sentiments In Local Politics

Sugit Sanjaya Arjon

Abstract


The rise of religious sentiments and identity politics in Indonesia is currently in critical phase. Indonesia is neither a Muslim nor a secular country, although it recognizes the existence of God in its first principle of state philosophical theory. Together with corruption and human rights, religion is a fundamental issue in politicians’ campaign materials, as these topics can be considered key for attracting voters. The fall of President Suharto’s New Order should be considered as the starting point of the sublime journey of political identity, which often implicates religions and ethnicities under the umbrella of democratic practices. However, after the fall of Suharto and the New Order regime, religious sentiments were not utilised for attacking other religions until the 2017 Jakarta election. The rise of religious sentiment during the 2017 Jakarta election successfully split Indonesia into two sides: those with a nationalist ideology and those with a religious ideology. It is hypothesized that this separation will sooner or later cause two dangerous practices in the Indonesian society: Islamic exceptionalism and iron fist ruling government. This qualitative article examines how Islamic exceptionalists have portrayed and framed themselves within Indonesia’s democratic practices and why the religious ideology is again on the rise. It explores arguments about why increases in religious sentiments and identity politics should be considered a critical test for Indonesia’s socio-politics and decisive for the progress of Indonesia’s democracy. Interestingly, the results show that in the context of local politics, most people are not attracted by and do not vote for candidates who exploit religious sentiments during their campaigns.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ackermann, Alice. 2003. "The Idea And Practice of Conflict Prevention." Journal of Peace Research 40 (No.3): 339-347.

Antlov, Hans. 2004. "Introduction." dalam Elections in Indonesia: New Order And Beyond. Hans Antlov dan Sven Cederroth. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Arjon, Sugit. S. 2015. "Political Influence of Local and International NGOs in Domestic Policymaking Processess: Kidnapping Prevention in Colombia". Master's Thesis at University of Amsterdam, 1-70.

Aspinall, Edward dan Greg Fealy. 2003. "Introduction: Decentralization, Democratization, And The Rise of The Local." dalam Local Power And Politics in Indonesia: Decentralization And Democratization. Edward Aspinall dan Greg Fealy. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Barron, Patrick dan Joanne Sharpe. 2010. "Conflict in Post-Suharto Indonesia: What Local Newspapers Tell Us." dalam Collective Violence in Indonesia. Ashutosh Varshney. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Baswedan, Anies Rasyid. 2007. "Indonesian Politics in 2007: The Presidency, Local Elections, And The Future of Democracy." Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 43 (No.2): 323-340.

____________________. 2007. "Regional Autonomy And Patterns of Democracy in Indonesia". PhD Dissertation. DeKalb, Northern Illnois, United States of America: Northern Illnois University.

Bertrand, Jacques. 2004. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brubaker, Rogers. 2015. "Religious Dimensions of Political Conflict and Violence." Sociological Theory 33 (No. 1): 1-19.

Colombijn, Freek dan Thomas Lindblad. 2002. "Introduction." dalam Roots of Violence in Indonesia: Contemporary Violence in Historical Perspective. Freek Colombijn dan Thomas Lindblad. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Craig, Gordon A. dan Alexander L. George. 1995. Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time. New York: Oxford University Press.

Crouch, Harold. 2010. Political Reform in Indonesia After Soeharto. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Davidson, Jamie Smith. 2005. "Decentralization and Regional Violence in The Post-Suharto State." dalam Regionalism in Post-Suharto Indonesia. Maribeth Erb, Priyambudi Sulistiyanto, dan Carole Faucher (Eds.). Oxon: RoutledgeCurzon.

Delin, Azizan bin Md. 2000. The Third Wave of Democratization in Indonesia. Calhoun Naval Postgraduate School, 1-103.

Dhani, Arman. 2016. ”Ketika UU ITE Menjadi Momok Masyarakat.” dalam https://tirto.id/ketika-uu-ite-menjadi-momok-masyarakat-ct (20 December 2017).

Diamond, Larry. 2010. "Indonesia's Place in Global Democracy." dalam Problems of Democratization in Indonesia: Elections, Institutions and Society. Edward Aspinall dan Marcus Mietzner. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Diamond, Larry dan Leonardo Morlino. 2005. Assessing the Quality of Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.

Drexler, Elizabeth. 2006. "Provoking Violence, Authenticating Separatism: Aceh's Humanitarian Pause." dalam Violent Conflicts in Indonesia: Analysis, Representation, Resolution. Charles Coppel. New York: Routledge.

Duncan, Christopher. R. 2013. Violence and Vengeance: Religious Conflict and Its Aftermath in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Cornell University Press.

Effendy, Bachtiar. 2017. "Reflections On The Fourth Wave of Democratization: The Indonesian Case." The 3rd International Conference on Social and Political Sciences 2017, Jakarta dalam https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/icsps-17/25891386 (20 December 2017).

Elson, Robert Edward. 2009, "Another Look at The Jakarta Charter Controversy of 1945." Indonesia 88 (-): 105-130.

Evans, Gareth. 2008. The Responsibility To Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once And For All. Washington D.C: The Brookings Institution Press.

Fadhli, Miftah. 2015. “A Few Words Hate Speech Defamation.” dalam http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/11/20/a-few-words-hate-speech-defamation.html (18 October 2017).

Feith, Herbert. 1962. The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

___________. 1999. Pemilihan Umum 1955 di Indonesia. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia.

Feith, Herbert dan Lance Castles. 2007. Indonesian Political Thinking 1945-1965. Singapore: Equinox Publishing.

Friedland, Roger. 2015. "The Constitution of Religious Political Violence: Institution, Culture, and Power.” dalam The Oxford Handbook of Cultural Sociology. Jeffrey Alexander, Ronald Jacobs, dan Philip Smith. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Galtung, Johan. 1969. "Violence, Peace, and Peace Research." Journal of Peace Research 6 (No.3): 167-191.

Gunawan S., Arif. 2016. “Indonesia Second Least Literate of 61 Nations.” dalam http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/03/12/indonesia-second-least-literate-61-nations.html (12 March 2016).

Hadiz, Vedi. R. 2004. "Decentralization and Democracy in Indonesia: A Critique of Neo-Institutionalist Perspectives." Development and Change 35 (No.4): 697-718.

Hauss, Charles. 2001. International Conflict Resolution: International Relations for the 21st Century. New York: Continuum.

Hidayat, Rachmat. 2017. "Political Devolution: Lessons From A Decentralized Mode of Government in Indonesia." SAGE Open (-): 1-11.

Honna, Jun. 2003. Military Politics And Democratization in Indonesia. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Hosen, Nadirsyah. 2005. "Religion And The Indonesian Constitution: A Recent Debate." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 36 (No. 3): 419-440.

Jentleson, Bruce. W. 1998. "Preventive Diplomacy And Ethnic Conflict: Possible, Difficult, Necessary." dalam The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation. Donald Rothchild dan David Lake. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Jones, Sidney. 2010. "The Normalisation of Local Politics? Watching The Presidential Elections in Morotai, North Maluku." dalam Problems of Democratization in Indonesia: Elections, Institutions, and Society. Edward Aspinall dan Marcus Mietzner. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

King, Dwight. 2003. Half-hearted Reform: Electoral Institutions And The Struggle For Democracy In Indonesia. New York: Praeger.

Kristiansen, Stein. 2003. "Violent Youth Groups In Indonesia: The Cases of Yogyakarta and Nusa Tenggara Barat." Sojourn 18 (No.1): 110-138.

Liddle, R. William. 2001. "Indonesia in 2000: A Shaky Start For Democracy." Asian Survey, 41 (No.1): 208-220.

MacDougall, John. M. 2007. “Self-reliant Militias.” dalam http://www.insideindonesia.org/self-reliant-militias-2 (10 December 2017).

Mietzner, Marcus dan Edward Aspinall. 2010. "Problems of Democratization in Indonesia: An Overview." dalam Problems of Democratization in Indonesia: Elections, Institutions, and Society. Marcus Mietzner dan Edward Aspinall. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Miichi, Ken. 2014. "The Role of Religion and Ethnicity in Jakarta’s 2012 Gubernatorial Election." Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 33 (No.1): 55-83.

Min, Sai Siew. 2006. "Eventing' the May 1998 Affair: Problematic Representations of Violence in Contemporary Indonesia." dalam Violent Conflicts in Indonesia: Analysis, Representation, Resolution. Charles Coppel. New York: Routledge.

Nordholt, Henk. S. 2002. "A Genealogy of Violence." dalam Roots of Violence in Indonesia: Contemporary Violence in Historical Perspective. Freek Colombijn dan Thomas Lindblad. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Panggabean, Samsu. Rizal. 2006. "Educating to Handle Conflict and Avoid Violence." dalam Violent Conflicts in Indonesia: Analysis, Representation, Resolution. Charles Coppel. New York: Routledge.

Pieris, John. 2004. Tragedi Maluku: Sebuah Krisis Peradaban. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Prasetyo, Pius. S. 2005. Democracy in the Indonesian Village Society: The Impact of Local Autonomy Policy and The Role of Local Culture Toward Democratization in Village Society. Munster: LitVerlag.

Pratikno. 2005. "Exercising Freedom: Local Autonomy And Democracy in Indonesia, 1999-2001." dalam Regionalism in Post-Suharto Indonesia. Maribeth Erb, Priyambudi Sulistiyanto, dan Carole Faucher (Eds.). Oxon: RoutledgeCurzon.

Rasyid, M. Ryaas. 2003. "Regional Autonomy and Local Politics in Indonesia." dalam Local Power and Politics in Indonesia: Decentralization and Democratization. Edward Aspinall dan Greg Fealy. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Scherrer, Christian. P. 2002. Structural Prevention of Ethnic Genocide. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Sidel, John. T. 2006. Riots, Pogroms, Jihad: Religious Violence in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Soeseno, Nuri. 2012. “Merosotnya Demokrasi Sosial dan Naiknya Partai-Partai Sayap Kanan Populis di Eropa: Problema Multikulturalisme dan Politik Identitas.” Jurnal Studi Politik 2 (No.1): 39-56.

Taylor, Charles. 2016. “Political Identity and The Problem of Democratic Exclusion.” dalam http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2016/04/29/4452814.htm (14 October 2017).

The Jakarta Post, Editorial. “Perppu's Slippery Slope.” dalam http://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2017/07/14/editorial-perppus-slippery-slope.html. (22 December 2017).

Uhlin, Anders. 1997. Indonesia and The 'Third Wave of Democratization': The Indonesian Pro-Democracy Movement in A Changing World. London: Routledge.

Varshney, Ashutosh, Rizal Panggabean, dan Mohammad Zulfan Tadjoeddin. 2004. "Patterns of Collective Violence in Indonesia (1990-2003)." UNSFIR Working Paper - 04/03, 1-46.

Wessel, Ingrid. 2005. "The Impact of The State on The Democratisation Process in Indonesia." dalam Democratisation in Indonesia After the Fall of Suharto. Ingrid Wessel. Berlin: Logos Verlag.

Widyawati, Nina. 2014. Etnisitas Dan Agama Sebagai Isu Politik: Kampanye JK - Wiranto Pada Pemilu 1999. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Wilson, Chris. 2008. Ethno-Religious Violence in Indonesia. New York: Routledge.

Yanuarti, Sri, Josephine Rosa Marieta, dan Mardyanto Wahyu Tryatmoko. 2005. Konflik di Maluku dan Maluku Utara: Strategi Penyelesaian Konflik Jangka Panjang. Jakarta: LIPI Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v3i2.123

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Sugit Sanjaya Arjon