Kontrol Sipil atas Militer dan Kebijakan Pertahanan di Indonesia Pasca Orde Baru

Aditya Batara Gunawan

Abstract


Artikel ini berpendapat bahwa upaya pemerintah sipil untuk mendorong perubahan kebijakan pertahanan di Indonesia pasca Orde Baru dilaksanakan melalui mekanisme layering. Secara teoretis, mekanisme layering beroperasi dalam kondisi-kondisi institusional yang menjadi ciri khas dalam konteks transisi demokrasi yaitu besarnya jumlah veto players dalam proses pengambilan keputusan di arena politik dan kecilnya ruang diskresi kebijakan dalam institusi yang dijadikan sebagai target perubahan. Oleh karena itu, perubahan didorong lewat penempatan elemen-elemen baru yang berdampingan dengan status quo yang berlaku di sebuah institusi. Melalui analisis deskriptif terhadap kebijakan MEF (Minimum Essential Force) tahap I tahun 2010-2014 ditemukan bahwa penggunaan mekanisme layering lewat kebijakan MEF telah berhasil diimplementasikan tanpa adanya penolakan dari para pendukung status quo di sektor pertahanan Indonesia. Kondisi ini dimungkinan karena program modernisasi alutsista (alat utama sistem persenjataan) yang menjadi inti dari kebijakan MEF memberikan insentif tambahan terhadap status quo yang sesuai dengan preferensi TNI (Tentara Nasional Indonesia) mengenai keberlanjutan organisasi mereka. Akan tetapi tulisan ini juga melihat adanya efek negatif dari penggunaan mekanisme layering tersebut yakni rendahnya derajat kepatuhan terhadap elemen baru perubahan. Sebagai akibat dari tetap utuhnya status quo, militer mempertahankan dominasinya dalam proses formulasi dan implementasi tanpa pengawasan efektif dari kalangan sipil. Dalam kasus MEF, kondisi ini menimbulkan inkonsistensi kebijakan yang kemudian dapat menghambat profesionalisme TNI ke depan serta memberikan celah bagi kembalinya TNI ke ranah politik praktis.


Keywords


kontrol sipil; layering; status quo; MEF

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v2i2.117

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